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No Title Sort descending Definition
1 Gazetteer

A catalogue of toponyms (place names) assigned with geographic references. A gazetteer service retrieves the geometries for one or more features, given their associated well-known feature identifiers (text strings).

2 Geocoder Service

Geocoding is the process of linking words, terms and codes found in a text string to their applicable geospatial features, with known positions (i.e., usually a point with x, y coordinates but more generally any geometry), e.g. converting a street address to a geographic location. The Geocoder Service Interface allows for a request providing an address or set of addresses and returns them along with the corresponding geometry (usually a point relative to a requested spatial reference system.) The request is "sent" to a Geocoder Service, which processes the request and returns the resulting geographic feature representing position.

3 Geocoding

[GIS processing] Geocoding is the process of assigning geographic coordinates to places based on street address, town/city, province/state and country.

4 Geodata

Digital data that represent the geographical location and characteristics of natural or man-made features, phenomena and boundaries of the Earth. Geodata represent abstractions of real-world entities, such as roads, buildings, vehicles, lakes, forests and countries. Geodata refers to such data in any format, including raster, vector, point, text, video, database records, etc.

5 Geodetic

related to the science of earth measurement (geodesy).

6 Geographic Coordinate System

A reference system that uses latitude and longitude to define the locations of points on the surface of a sphere or spheroid. A geographic coordinate system definition includes a datum, prime meridian, and angular unit. geographic coordinate system Illustration.

7 Geographic information system (GIS)

the organized activity by which people measure aspects of geographic phenomena and processes; represent these measurements, usually in the form of a computer database, to emphasize spatial themes, entities and relationships; operate upon these representations to produce more measurements and to discover new relationships by integrating disparate sources; and transform these representations to conform to other frameworks of entities and relationships. These activities reflect the larger context (institutions and cultures) in which these people carry out their work. In turn, the GIS may influence these structures.

8 Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

[GIS dictionary] GIS is a computer-based tool that analyzes, stores, manipulates and visualizes geographic information on a map. GIS links geographic locations on Earth with attribute information enabling users to visualize patterns, understand relationships and trends.

9 Geography

Geography is the study of the Earth and its lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena.


10 Geomedia

[software] GeoMedia is a GIS software package produced by Hexagon Geospatial (previously Intergraph) used to analyze, store and visualize geographic data.

11 Geoprocessing

Use of computers to acquire, analyze, store, display, and distribute information about geographic features. This includes GIS and systems for remote sensing (Earth imaging), facilities management, automated mapping, cartography, navigation, and location services.

12 Georeference

To georeference something means to define its existence in physical space. That is, establishing its location in terms of map projections or coordinate systems. The term is used both when establishing the relation between raster or vector images and coordinates but also when determining the spatial location of other geographical features.

13 Georeferencing

Assigning map coordinates to an image. Usually involves resampling of pixels to extrapolate the values for the new pixels.

14 Geospatial Data

Geospatial data, GIS data or geodata has explicit geographic positioning information included within it, such as a road network from a GIS, or a geo-referenced satellite image. Geospatial data may include attribute data that describes the features found in the dataset.There are two types of geospatial data - vector and raster.

15 Geospatial Data Infrastructure (GDI)

Geospatial Data Infrastructure (GDI) is an initiative intended to create an environment in which all stakeholders can cooperate with each other and interact with technology, to better achieve their objectives at different political/administrative levels. GDI initiatives around the world have evolved in response to the need for cooperation between users and producers of geospatial data to nurture the means and environment for spatial data sharing and development. The ultimate objectives of these initiatives are to promote economic development, to stimulate better government and to foster environmental sustainability.

16 Geospatial Infrastructure

The information infrastructure and the institutional arrangement that a national geospatial information authority (such as MaCGDI) provides for geospatial users in implementing NSDI.

17 Global Mapper

[software] Global Mapper was originally developed by USGS for the purpose of displaying elevation DEM data. It is a commercial GIS software product that allows users to view, edit, merge and export hundreds of supported file formats with flexibility.

18 Global Positioning System (GPS)

A satellite based device that records x,y,z coordinates and other data. Ground locations are calculated by signals from satellites orbiting the Earth. GPS devices can be taken into the field to record data while walking, driving, or flying. 

19 Global Spatial Data Infrastructure (GSDI)

A set of policies, standards, practices, technologies, and relationships to facilitate the flow of geographic data and information at all levels across government, academic, and private sectors globally. A linking of National Spatial Data Infrastructures.

20 Governance

Is all of the processes of governing, whether undertaken by a government, market or network, whether over a family, tribe, formal or informal organisation or territory and whether through the laws, norms, power or language of an organised society. 

21 Graticule

[coordinate system] Graticules are lines of latitude or longitude on a digital or hard copy map and assist in showing the geographic locations of map features.

22 Greenwich Meridian (Prime Meridian)

[coordinate system] The Greenwich meridian is a line of longitude that passes through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England. In a geographical coordinate system, it is a line of longitude defined to be 0°.

23 Ground-truth Data

Data about a feature collected in the field.

24 Ground-Truthing

Acquiring data about features of interest in remote sensing by collecting ground-truth data in the field, inspecting aerial photography, additional maps, other ancillary data.