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[coordinate systems] In a spherical coordinate system, the vertical line that runs parallel to the earth's rotation, passing through 90 degrees north latitude, and perpendicular to the equatorial plane, where it crosses the x- and y-axes at the origin (0,0,0).
[coordinate systems] The value for a given surface location that represents an attribute other than position. In an elevation or terrain model, the z-value represents elevation; in other kinds of surface models, it represents the density or quantity of a particular attribute.
[spatial analysis] The creation of an output raster in which the desired function is computed on the cell values from the input value raster that intersect or fall within each zone of a specified input zone dataset. The input zone dataset is only used to define the size, shape, and location of each zone, while the value raster identifies the values to be used in the evaluations within the zones.